This article needs additional citations for verification. Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa. The Quarter Of Despeñaperros of the Order of Calatrava. Banner of arms kingdom of Leon.

Estandarte de la Corona de Aragon. 16 July 1212 and was an important turning point in the Reconquista and in the medieval history of Spain. In 1195, Alfonso VIII of Castile was defeated by the Almohads in the so-called Disaster of Alarcos. There were some disagreements among the members of the Christian coalition: French and other European knights did not agree with Alfonso’s merciful treatment of Jews and Muslims who were previously defeated in the conquest of Malagón and Calatrava la Vieja. Alfonso crossed the mountain range that defended the Almohad camp, sneaking through the Despeñaperros Pass, being led by Martin Alhaja, a local shepherd who knew the area.

According to legend, the Caliph had his tent surrounded with a bodyguard of slave-warriors who were chained together as a defense. The Navarrese force led by their king Sancho VII broke through this bodyguard. The Caliph escaped, but the Moors were routed, leaving heavy casualties on the battlefield. The losses were particularly heavy among the Orders. The Caliph Muhammad al-Nasir himself died in Marrakech shortly after the battle, where he had fled after the defeat. The crushing defeat of the Almohads significantly hastened their decline both in the Iberian Peninsula and in the Maghreb a decade later.

That gave further impulse to the Christian Reconquest and sharply reduced the already declining power of the Moors in Iberia. By 1252 the Almohad empire was almost finished, at the mercy of another emerging African power. In 1269 a new association of African tribes, the Marinids, took control of the Maghreb, and most of the former Almohad empire was under their rule. Granada, Almería, and Málaga were the only major Muslim cities of the time remaining in the Iberian peninsula. Tunnel Through the Deeps depicts a history where the Moors won at Las Navas de Tolosa and retained part of Spain into the 20th century.

Martín Alvira Cabrer: Las Navas de Tolosa, 1212: idea, liturgia y memoria de la batalla. Lynn Hunt describes the battle as a “major turning point in the reconquista” See Lynn Hunt, R. Guggenberger, Anthony, A General History of the Christian Era: The Papacy and the Empire, Vol. According to the king of Castile, “On their side 100,000 armed men fell in battle” See Lynn Hunt, R. Riga and Rome: Henry of Livonia and the Papal Curia, Iben Fonnesberg-Schmidt, Crusading and Chronicle Writing on the Medieval Baltic Frontier, ed. Three sources on the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in 1212  De Re Militari”. García Fitz, Francisco, Was Las Navas a decisive battle?